I’m leaving out the District of Columbia, which tops out at over $350 per resident. The precise Washington figure is $4.65.
I spent most of the first 21 years of my life living in Maryland (in the DC area!) and Massachusetts, which might explain why my expectations are so high.
Funding data from APTA’s 2005 “Survey of State Funding for Public Transportation” (pdf)
2008 population data from Wikipedia.