Deadheading buses in I-5 traffic

Beginning the weekend of July 8-11th, WSDOT will conduct a major repaving project on I-5 between Tukwila and Federal Way. Southbound I-5 will shrink down to two lanes during this work.

Transit users can expect delays. The work affects the 101, 106, and 150, as well as ST Express Routes. Metro spokesman Jeff Switzer says the agency is considering detours that would still serve all stops, but that in any case travelers will have to allow more time.

There will be no HOV lane in the construction zone even when the existing HOV lane is open.  WSDOT representative Tom Pearce cited the “86,000 cars” that use I-5 on a weekend day:

During these weekend lane reductions, if we were to leave one lane only for HOVs and force all other traffic into one lane, we would cause huge tie-ups on I-5 and other roads that either feed the freeway or that could be used as alternatives. This would have a ripple effect through the entire highway system, causing service disruptions on local bus routes as well as those that rely on I-5.

When we reduce southbound I-5 to two lanes, we need to allow all vehicles to use both of those lanes. With just two lanes where we normally have five, everyone using the road, including transit, will see backups.

This model assumes that very few people will switch to transit given the proper incentives. In my view, a better way to meet the demand for travel in this corridor would be to provide a much faster transit alternative. This would provide at least a hope of matching the normal throughput of people. Unlike WSDOT’s tolling initiatives, the agency is choosing to make everyone sit in a traffic jam rather than giving an alternative to the people that really need it.

Let’s also spare a thought for the Federal Way voter. ST3 opponents are saying that the existing bus system is just as good or better than light rail, but a totally separate right-of-way would be really good about now, and really any time (planned or unplanned) that I-5 melts down.

71 Replies to “I-5 Closures This Summer”

  1. Thank gawd for (relatively unaffected) Link LR. Once again we see that WSDOT’s lowest priority is transit. No big surprise there.

    More buses stuck in traffic – it will never end as long as we stick with buses in mixed traffic.

  2. In my view, a better way to meet the demand for travel in this corridor would be to provide a much faster transit alternative.

    Isn’t Sounder that alternative? And ST is in negotiations now to increase frequency. As a practical matter, only a very small number of the vehicle trips can be presented with a viable transit option. Outside of commute periods that number approaches zero. Of course freight also has alternatives. Number one, diverting to 167/405 is also going to be popular with cars and it will be interesting to see how the HOT lanes manage the crush. It would also be interesting to see if shippers, especially LTL carriers make a modal shift to rail.

    a totally separate right-of-way would be really good about now

    Good thing it exists. I’d expect Metro and ST to be using 99 and forcing transfers at Seatac. With this sort of traffic kerfuffle even a bad transfer should look better than the alternative. It will prove how important transfer access and average system speed are to making light rail a viable alternative to I-5.
    With only two lanes (why can’t it be three?) there is zero chance one will remain HOV only. But are there measures, ala Swift that can be taken to improve transit throughput on 99?

    1. Sounder is not an alternative, since it doesn’t go to Federal Way and all the other in-betweener spots near I-5.

      That said, spillover onto the Valley Freeway will create a mess there, where it is an alternative.

      1. RapidRide A: 31 minutes from Federal Way TC to SeaTac station. Through trip with Link: 31 minutes A to SeaTac + 2 minutes walk + 5 minutes wait + 39 minutes Link to Westlake = 77 minutes.

        RapidRide KDM Road: By 2040 pending funding.

        RapidRide FW-Auburn: By 2040 pending funding.

  3. If I’m reading the WSDOT project profile correctly, this is weekend-only work? Generally I agree with the sentiment that keeping HOV access is a high priority during lane closures (e.g., during the Aurora Avenue closures a few months ago), but like Bernie I find it hard to believe that more than a tiny fraction of southbound passenger vehicle trips in that timeframe would be amenable to shifting to transit, particularly with the paucity of weekend suburban transit connections beyond the I-5 spine.

    1. Are these closures on weekends only? And how many weekends? At least there won’t be any PM commute. And a lot of travel will be optional. Though, anybody know sports schedule?

      Since Sounder has nothing else to do on weekends, why not put on some trains? Pretend there’s a football game both days. Or really have one. I don’t like the idea of permanently converting shoulders to traffic lanes, but reserving them for transit should cost less than blockage.

      Real trouble will be southbound long-distance traffic. Might be worth it to truckers to divert east of the Mountains. WSDOT could also post maps of alternate routes. And recalling one day-long blockage at the Nisqually River, which blocked I-5 north to Sea-Tac, good idea for every driver in the region to know
      I-5-free routes from the Border south, and Portland north.

      Personally hate traffic jams so bad I’ll drive fifty miles to avoid a ten mile jam. Good practice for above paragraph. Let alone emergency evacuation.


    2. You are reading that correct. Now that I go to the original release it is clear that theses closures are nighttime only and the occasional weekend long closure.

      This blog post is incomplete and overly sensational. Let’s save our energy and angst for things that really matter.

    3. It is only weekends, which mitigates some of the transit impact. WSDOT could’ve done this over 15 days consecutively which may have been cheaper from a construction standpoint but much worse for traffic.

      The other lesson here is that if you rely on I-5, understand that there will be times it is unavailable for whatever reason. That includes transit users. We can’t expect 100% uptime on our transportation network.

      The Dutch installed a tunnel under a highway in a weekend. Pretty impressive time-lapse video of it online.

  4. … Wow, so the end of this article is actually saying “well at least in this case, a 1-hour light rail to Federal Way is faster.” Which is like, what, the 1% case? I’ll keep this in mind when I’m on the future Federal Way line spending twice as much travel time as the 578 takes.

  5. once again, when light rail does make it’s way to federal way, the majority of the time it will take longer than an express bus. Too many stops along the way. It will be 60+ minutes with all the additional stops.

    1. That’s why I’m all for the idea of some express trains on the light rail. Put in enough crossover tracks that an express lane could pass a local where needed and keep moving.

      1. Express lines like you see in NYC aren’t to save time. They really don’t make a huge time difference unless you’re going a very long distance. The reason they exist is for capacity. Federal Way won’t need nearly that kind of capacity to justify an investment in express trains – at least not in any of our lifetimes.

    2. It won’t be more than 60 minutes. After all, they expect 70 minutes to Tacoma.

    3. ST has said that freeway speeds will deteriorate to Link’s speed in 20-30 years. Link’s Tacoma opening is in the early 2030s if I recall, so that’s 2016-2034 (18 years; no Tacoma extension), 2034-2046 (12 years; Tacoma extension running, buses faster). But there’s a fallacy of assuming the buses will exist. ST’s planning scenarios in 2015 all had the 57x and 59x truncated at KDM. Now that Federal Way is advanced to 2024 in ST3, I assume it will wait a year for Federal Way to open. Or if ST3 fails, the original plan will continue. So we need to stop assuming the downtown buses will be there in the 2030s to extend; they may be long gone by then. In that case the choice is not a fast bus or a slow train or Sounder, but a slow train or Sounder or nothing. Federal Wayans might suddenly discover Auburn Station, and pack the P&R or the buses to it.

      1. Taking any prediction as given is a bad habit. If we something we want to either do or avoid, better to start working in the direction we want now. That way, whatever obstacles or assists the future hands us, at least we’ll have some momentum in some direction.

        Hate to get back to Zeppelins and clipper ships- though the Germans could see cars, tracks, and trolleywire from the control cars of the one, and the topmasts of the other. But point is that to be steered at all, anything floating has to be moving.


      2. As I understand ST Express, it is authorized by the ST enabling legislation only as a “stop-gap” until rail can be completed in a given operated corridor. So while Metro can provide all the peak hour express service it wants and can afford in the I-5 corridor and across Lake Washington, ST will have to truncate “base” STEX service paralleling Link.

        Obviously, there can’t be rail provided over every activity center-to-activity pair, so SOME STEX service will still be offered.

      3. I still have my doubts if eliminating all ST Express service on the I-5 south corridor is going to be practical, and popular with the riders. For what gains you may make in overall frequency and capacity, I think rush hours without the 59x will be a crush loaded mess, with Tacoma commuters who are accustomed to having a fine seated ride crammed into a light rail train with all sorts of local traffic all the way home. During the rush it may save you some time, however at present outside of rush hour and any major incidents the 59x is still a faster – and more comfortable service to use.

  6. Wonder if this is generational. Because even if it’s technically illegal to text behind the wheel of a stuck or crawling car…what are the State Police going to do about it? And nothing in the tail-gate party tradition says the pickup can’t be moving.

    Only their grandparents’ generation still like country driving, even though DWO (Driving While Old), and DWD (Driving While Dead) kill more people than DWTXTNG. OMG! IMDED! LOL!

    And, no matter how many drivers are technically lethally drunk, the police might just as well join the party. Maybe one officer can be the designated driver! Because at least for that stretch, how hard can anything crash into anything else?

    Ambulances can wait at the end of the jam. And it’s, what, a five minute ‘copter ride to Harborview? Even better, by the time anybody emerges from the free linear parking lot, they’ll probably not be drunk anymore, but have a hangover making them wish they were dead. Which unfortunately, like death, isn’t much deterrent to these people for next road repair.

    Maybe if Fare Inspectors and Security just looked the other way, held their noses, and knew location of every mop bucket between the Airport and UW, I-5 would run faster and safer.


      1. OK, explain to me why the entire rest of this conversation has been deleted as [ot] but “Hodor” has not. :-) What *is* the relevance of Hodor? Inquiring minds want to know. ;-)

      2. I have no idea what [ot] means I no reasonable person should be expected to know. I heard everyone saying ot ot ot and it reminded me of hodor hodor hodor

      3. Off topic conversations usually get the boot. When they do the Worldpress system inserts [ot] for off topic.

  7. Temporarily ignoring issues about whether transit is viable for a typical trip or not, there’s a fundamental capacity problem to the transit solution – even if every bus down the corridor were crushloaded, the numbers still wouldn’t make a dent in the number of people who drive down I-5 every day. You would have to drastically increase frequency (e.g. operate rush-hour-level service all day on the weekend) just to have the theoretical capacity to take enough cars off the road to really make a difference. There is no money to pay for this, nor does it address commercial traffic or people driving down I-5 who are not going to/from downtown.

    1. Metro is very limited on how many extra drivers and vehicles are available for extra service like this. There just aren’t hundreds of buses and drivers ‘sitting around’ waiting for something to do.

    2. Right, Metro doesn’t have much more than to fund current operations and future planning, especially outside Seattle where Prop 1 doesn’t apply. It can’t hire a fleet to quintuple the number of express runs. But WSDOT has money, and WSDOT sometimes funds extra buses to mitigate the construction impacts. Is it doing so this time? WSDOT may be moving away from that, since it earlier funded extra E runs during deep-bore tunnel construction, but it refused to continue those when the project dragged on, and it didn’t do so during the recent Aurora closures. So WSDOT may be moving toward a “Not our problem” position, encouraged by the legislature. But it’s worth asking whether it should.

      Another problem with expanding bus service beyond the current peak-hour level is the lack of buses, and where would they layover downtown?

      1. It couldn’t hurt, but I’m concerned that whatever extra buses WSDOT funded would go unnoticed by the public at large. Remember, the general public who drives everywhere, every day, does not read STB, and does not keep up with the latest transit news. The extra Cascades train funded to mitigate the Skagit River bridge collapse a few years ago ran nearly empty.

    3. If their owners drove them onto I-5 and are content to sit there in them, and there’s no money to change anything, what business is it of mine where those cars are? Mine isn’t one of them. While they’re doing what they want, I’ll be working on a transit system that will let me look at them and be glad I’m not stealing any of their hard-earned lane space.

      Since they’ve obviously got enough money to make the car payments, buy the gas and insurance, and hire mechanics, they’ve certainly got enough to pay for a transit system that can move them along that corridor much faster and have plenty left over to go places where they want to go instead of have to. “Walk a mile in their shoes” not really apt anymore. But no way I’m going to spend a week riding a mile in their car.


      1. I liked when WSDOT closed ALL of I-405 for a massive ‘pave all the lanes at once’ effort about 10+years ago. It went surprisingly well, and very quick. With enough warning, people figured it out and life went on.

      2. @mic

        this happened on I-5 as well, also about 10 years ago (mostly to upgrade the expansion joints as I recall). Much like the effects of events like the Olympics, when people know it’s coming, can prepare for it (take vacation then, shift work schedules, telecommute, find alternate routes, shift to transit, etc.) and transit is set up for it, the dire predictions of utter traffic collapse don’t occur. It’s the sudden and unforeseen occurrence that bollixes things up quickly and irredeemably.

  8. According to WSDOT, “these lanes of I-5 carry approximately 200,000 vehicles per day”. At 50 people per bus, that would translate into 4,000 buses per day, or 166.67 buses per hour, operating 24 hours a day.

    As much as we like to wish that transit has the capacity to replace driving on a meaningful scale, the reality is, in our current state of affairs, it does not.

    1. Exactly the reason we’ve got trains, adsf2. And reason it’s good idea for any rapidly-transporting busway to be structured out to be converted to rail, the more passengers it attracts, the sooner necessary.

      At 60 miles an hour, needing a coach length following distance for every ten miles an hour speed, the lane space between follower’s front bumper and leader’s rear one would carry the passengers you’re talking about with a dining car and a smoking lounge where sign says you can’t.

      Also, if we can’t change our current state of affairs, all fifty of them, our freeway system’s only problem will be getting what’s left of all those people out from under the tons of broken concrete that the State of Affairs (that makes fifty one, doesn’t it?) and its elected officials will combine with gravity to provide.

      But I’m pretty gullible. Make up a reason we can’t change it. What’s to lose by at least trying?. Even the heart-broken rescue dogs will do their best to change the location of the realistic car-users. And if they can’t, out-of-work buzzards won’t even ask time and a half, benefits, or pensions.

      One creature’s deferred maintenance is another one’s fast-food supper.

      Realistically, Mark


    2. As another thought experiment, a Sounder train carrying 1,000 people per trip would need to run 8 1/3 trips per hour, 24 hours, to carry 200,000 people in a day. This would amount to one train every 7.2 minutes. It would be an unprecedented level of service that would completely shut down all freight traffic for the day (and I’m still completely ignoring the issue of how to get people out of their cars to actually fill the trains), but unlike the bus scenario, if one squints hard enough and pretends there’s no BNSF to deal with, one could actually contemplate the idea of a train every 7.2 minutes all day long without choking in laughter.

  9. There are legitimate reasons for building light rail.

    “On five weekends in July and August southbound I-5 will be reduced to two lanes from 10 p.m. Friday to 5 a.m. Monday.”

    This is not one of them.

    – Sam, America’s most trusted transit journalist.

    1. This is not the only reduction that occurs. Other freeway projects occur throughout the year. Accidents occur almost every day somewhere in Pugetopolis, and around a fifth of those affect I-5 between Seattle and Tacoma. Ballgame surges occur several times a year and disrupt everyone who’s not attending. Random traffic jams occur at other times. So even though there’s not a slowdown all day every day, there are enough of them every month that we should at least consider light rail or another exclusive-ROW alternative.

  10. I wonder how many trips are funneled onto this portion of I-5 because the more direct routes are more expensive or less convenient. For example, every trip between Kitsap County and King County faces tradeoffs between ferry service and crossing the Narrows. The analysis is similar to that made when deciding whether to drive or use transit, but compounded by the decision of whether to put the car on an auto ferry or not. Not every driver on I-5 would be served by a bus on I-5 or even by a parallel transit alternative. Some drivers on I-5 would rather be on a passenger ferry crossing the Sound.

    1. My first guess would be that trips from Kitsap County via Tacoma to Seattle are such a small fraction of traffic on I-5 they make little difference. Second, they are limited by the capacity of the Narrows Bridge and SR 16, which is less than I-5. And many of the people coming from Kitsap are going to Tacoma, other parts of Pierce County, and south King County; only a portion are going to Seattle or through this part of I-5.

  11. I don’t know whether it makes sense to build entire new elevated rail alignments on the strength of occasionally terrible closures. Still, everything about this reeks of the “Huh? What? Transit?” attitude that pervades WSDOT.

    An agency committed to actually moving people would make it a priority to expedite buses as much as possible through the construction zone (even if the ultimate constriction was still two lanes of GP traffic), and/or would pay for weekend Sounder service to provide some alternative between big urban centers. My rage at the agency is attenuated only by knowing who they work for, namely the odious, know-nothing Republican caucus in Olympia.

    1. Don’t know about Great Britain, Bruce, but recall it’s had experience we need, but pray we won’t get. Would the Ministry of Defense permit a system actually called Defense Highways to become death traps?

      Or would some committed official tell the Army to get enough lanes cleared of cars to get public transit moving at evacuation speed, along with whatever other emergency equipment needs to not be stuck? There’s a Federal shield on all those I-Whatever signs.

      Current level of Caucussian Knowldege (Department or Ministry?) somewhat responsibility of a We Can’t Do Anything About It electorate. But current events back home could be on our side. If Great Britain will stay in the European Union, we’ll join! C’mon, the Scots didn’t exit you, did they? And we won’t mind being in the same country with them. For a while.

      Europe will show us how to build streetcars, and your country will give us world’s best recipes for Indian food. In return, we’ll show countries that can’t hold ten million people together how to do it for three hundred million.

      But best of all, thousands of young Europeans will be able to go to their world-favorite place without fleeing Sweden. And all our Interstates will get to have an M on them. However, somebody’s transit drivers are going to have to learn to drive on the other side of the road.


    2. I agree, but they really don’t work for the legislature. They work for the governor. But the governor — who I met and like — is being hammered by the Republicans, and doesn’t want to rock the boat so close to the election. He will do whatever it takes to win over a couple suburban seats, then hopefully swing to the left and do what he knows is right and focus on moving the buses.

  12. Transit doesn’t go anywhere in South King. Sorry. Transit is not the answer here. Long term, yes, we need MUCH better transit. But short of creating dozens of temporary bus routes that currently do not exist for the duration of this closure and getting drivers accustomed to using them for three days of road work, trying to accommodate this with transit will be completely ineffective. Right now, Metro and ST are completely Seattle-centric. But most of us, especially on a weekend, aren’t necessarily going to downtown Seattle. We’re visiting a friend in Tukwila. Going out to eat in Renton. Gotta look at furniture in Southcenter. Ooops, out of milk, need to stop at Trader Joe’s. What’s that, it is cousin’s birthday party – gotta head to that favorite restaurant in Tacoma. Please tell me what bus routes will accommodate any of these trips in a timely fashion without entirely consuming a person’s day??????????

    Right now, transit in King County is ALLLLLL about Seattle. But guess what, south of about SR516, for the majority of us, very little of our lives takes place in Seattle. Heck, that even holds true for a lot of people (although maybe not a majority) south of SR 518. Last time I went to Seattle? I think I headed there for a work meeting (1 hour) a few weeks ago. I didn’t even stick around for lunch, wanted to make it back down here before traffic got bad. And I visited a friend there in Georgetown about a month ago. That’s it.

    People know the drill. Major road work. Adjust your travel plans. For those with an optional trip, it may mean doing that thing a different weekend. Or picking a different destination that’s closer to home. (i.e. The sushi place “up there” is awesome, but we can settle for the Thai place “right here in town.”) For others, it means using an alternate route. But, I can’t get anywhere by transit, personally. Still waiting. We’d like some actual bus routes and progressive (i.e. high-density and transit centric) zoning down here. That would help tremendously, long-term.

    1. Question stays the same, Engineer. This isn’t only about choice of vehicles. Or about fuel or air pollution. It’s about a completely paved (meaning constant patching) country where nobody can go anywhere after helicopter flight becomes plain flaming suicide.

      Meantime, two easy steps for any area that feels transit-deprived. Vote and let your officials know if they don’t deliver, next time it won’t be for them.


      1. Thank you Mark. I write to my leaders. I vote very Progressively. I can’t say the same for so many active voters down here. We need to get the vote out and get EVERYBODY’S voice heard. You are correct on so many levels.

    2. This is specifically to mitigate I-5 traffic to Seattle during construction. Trips within south King County don’t require I-5. There’s the West Valley Highway to Tukwila and Benson Drive to Renton, and 99 to Tacoma. If I-5 is down to two lanes, local drivers will be taking these other roads anyway because 35 mph is better than certain gridlock.

      South King County does need a comprehensive transit solution, especially given its large population and high transit dependency. Metro has some ideas. Aleks has some other ideas.

      1. Mike, you are right that locals will avoid I-5. That takes care of most of those trips. Long-distance drivers will not be helped by transit though, as it will only get them to Seattle. Truckers driving through to Canada or some industrial park will not be helped. Drivers going beyond – camping, hiking, a lake, Canada, you name it – will not be helped. Transit will help a very narrow segment of the trips on this corridor.

        Thank you for the links. The “ideas” for added service are a huge step in the right direction. Kent, Renton, and the north half of Federal Way badly need improved services and these proposals address that need. Everything south of SR 18 remains largely unchanged, though, and improvements are mediocre at best for most of Auburn and Federal Way.

      2. Yeah, that’s the thing. The idea made a lot of sense for a weekday closure — Metro service represents a very big chunk of the traffic. But on the weekend, it is different. Recreation dominates, which is why this probably wouldn’t work. They would probably have to change the lanes to bus only. Anyone who has ever crossed the bridge during a three day weekend, or even when lanes are closed on the weekend knows that the car pool lane doesn’t move any faster (because practically everyone has more than one person in the car).

        Which doesn’t mean they shouldn’t improve transit during the closure. A lot of people would prefer a trip on a bus — even a slow one — versus driving in stop and go traffic.

    1. It may be old memories. The 106 used to travel on I-5 from Spokane Street to Swift Avenue.

      1. Must be really old memories. I’ve lived in South Beacon for 10 years & can’t remember a time when the 106 skipped Georgetown.

        I suppose the 106 could still be affected by drivers bailing off the freeway at SODO & Georgetown exits.

        I did travel via I-5 on the 106 once, on the last bus of the night after sleeping through my stop. I had to return downtown and sleep on a couch at work that night.

      2. Has it been that long? I thought it was the 2009 restructure.

        When the DSTT opened in 1990 they deleted the 142 (downtown-Dearborn-MLK-Renton Ave-Renton) and a Renton MLK route and created the 101, 106, and 107. The 101 went on its current route. The 106 went from the tunnel to the SOD busway, I-5, Swift Ave, Myrtle St, Othello St, Rainier Ave, Renton Ave to Renton. The 107 did the same to Raineir & Henderson and then went on Rainier Ave to Renton.

        When Link started in 2009, the 106 was moved from Othello Street to Henderson Street. I thought it was moved off the freeway then but that may have been earlier. The 42 was deleted (downtown-Dearborn-MLK-Rainier View), although part of it lived on for a year. The 107 became a shuttle from Rainier Beach Station to Rainier View (the 42’s former tail) and Renton.

      3. You’re right. When I moved in, the S Beacon line was the 36 and I traveled downtown via the entire length of Beacon Hill. I had forgotten that they twisted the 36 and 106 around the time Link opened, similar to how they’re about to twist the 106 & 107.

  13. I-5 doesn’t need more bus service. It needs a temporary boost in Amtrak Cascades service.

    I would once again like to point to my Page 2 piece about putting Sounder equipment to use on Amtrak Cascades to increase capacity. It mentions the rather steep increase in price increase on Amtrak Cascades as seats sell out, which means the trains don’t carry as many people as they could because people shy away from the high prices.

    Portland is the busiest station on Amtrak Cascades, and can take an 18 car train. None of the other stations can handle that, but it doesn’t matter.

    Make an 18 car train, load 12 in Seattle with the six southern cars hanging off the end of the platform, and load the remaining 6 in Tacoma. Lower the prices until the thing is sold out.

    1. Portland is the busiest? Seattle had 427,000 on/offs compared to Portland’s 380,000 last year.

      1. That’s good and as it should be. The last numbers I had seen still had Seattle with lower numbers, most likely due to the number of people using Tacoma and other alternative stations.

      2. I always defer to you on all things rail, Glenn, but I was a bit surprised by that statement as normally Seattle has higher ridership–as might be expected. (Portland indeed had about 1000 more on/offs in 2012 and that was reversed in 2013; prior to 2007 Seattle had quite a few more.)

      3. It would be interesting to see if the percentage of riders from Tacoma increases if they were given a bit less limits. It seems like they contributed a larger percentage of riders than they do now.

        However, if Seattle to Portland gets sold out, that also means that there isn’t any leftover capacity for Tacoma to Portland.

        Once you’ve paid for the track capacity and the operation of a train, adding more capacity to that existing train is cheaper than operating a second train.
        Which is why you sometimes see excursions with 20 cars in Portland.

        Under these conditions, the more cars you can get off I-5 the better. I’ve read that Sounder carries as much traffic as a lane of I-5. If a bunch of people can be taken off I-5 with a selected boost in train capacity (Tacoma – Everett? Tacoma – Bellingham? Everett – Portland?) then maybe it is time to do that.

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